Birago Diop (11 December – 25 November ) was a Senegalese poet . (in French) “Biographie de Birago Diop”, , 21 September XXX;: XX;: ; Point E rue 5 X Birago DIOP en Philosophie et Anthropologie de l’Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD). 12 oct. politique: biographie par Alfred Largange, bibliographie détaillée, liens. Léopold Sédar Senghor et Birago Diop), le journal L’Étudiant noir.

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Birago Diop 11 December — 25 November [1] was a Senegalese poet and storyteller whose work restored general interest in African folktales and promoted him to one of the most outstanding African francophone writers. His mother raised him with his two older brothers, Massyla and Youssoupha; his father, for unknown reasons, disappeared two months before Diop was born. Diop’s childhood exposed him to many folktales, which he later used in his literary work.

During this time, he became fascinated with the poems and style of writing of Victor HugoCharles BaudelaireEdgar Allan Poe and several others and began writing his own. Although he was mostly recognized for his poems and folktales, Diop also worked as a veterinary surgeon for the French colonial government in several West African countries, spending —39 in the French Sudan now Maliin the Ivory Coast and French Upper Volta now Burkina Fasoand in Mauritania.

He also served as the first Senegalese ambassador to Tunisia from to During his work as the head of the government’s cattle-inspection service for several regions in Senegal and Mali[3] he was introduced to traditional folktales, most of which he committed to memory. These served as the main inspiration for much of his literary work. Indeed, most of his poems and tales have their roots in oral African traditions. Generally recited to a group at night by a professional storyteller, called a griotfolktales were repeated in different places by the people who heard them.

These ceremonies commonly consisted of songs and dances in addition to these folktales. Although the tales served as entertainment, they also had the greater purpose of teaching younger generations about the beliefs and values of their ancestors.

His first literary piece Les Contes d’Amadou Koumba was published in As soon as Senegal gained its independence, Diop was nominated as the first Senegalese ambassador in Tunisia. Upon accepting this position, he claimed to have “broken his pen,” suggesting that he was ready to give up writing altogether and focus on his diplomatic career.

It was not until the mids, towards the end of his life, that his “pen was mended. Birago Diop died on 25 November in Dakar at the age of Even now, decades after his death, his stories and poems remain, sharing African values and culture.

Dakar — Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city in the Old World as well as on the African mainland. The city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,, the area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century.

Following the abolition of the trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port. Init became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal, Dakar is home to multiple national and regional banks as well as numerous international organizations.

From toit was also the finishing point of the Dakar Rally. The Cap-Vert peninsula was settled no later than the 15th century, by the Lebou people, the original villages, Ouakam, Ngor, Yoff and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the city today. Inthe Portuguese reached the Bay of Dakar, initially as slave-raiders, peaceful contact was finally opened in by Diogo Gomes, and the bay was subsequently referred to as the Angra de Bezeguiche.

The island was to switch hands between the Portuguese and Dutch several more times before falling to the English under Admiral Robert Holmes on January 23, and finally to the French in In the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule, a new theocratic state, subsequently called the Lebou Republic by the French, biofraphie established under the leadership of the Diop, a Muslim dop family originally from Koki in Cayor.

The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru, in the French established a military hiographie at Ndakaaru and annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally.

The Serigne of Ndakaaru is still recognized as the political authority of the Lebou by the Senegalese State today. Biigraphie slave trade was abolished by France in Februaryhowever, Napoleon reinstated it in Maythen finally abolished it permanently in March Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, and Guinea-Bissau to the southwest.

Senegal also borders The Biotraphie, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, Senegal also shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegals economic and political capital is Dakar and it is the dio country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia, and owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north. The name Senegal comes from the Wolof Sunuu Gaal, which means Our Boat, Senegal covers a land area of almostsquare kilometres and has an estimated population of about 15 bkrago.


The climate is Sahelian, but there is a rainy season, the territory of modern Senegal has been inhabited by various ethnic groups since prehistory. Organized kingdoms emerged around the century, and parts of biogrraphie country were ruled by prominent regional empires such as the Jolof Empire.

The present state of Senegal has its roots in European colonialism, which began during the midth century, the establishment of coastal trading posts gradually led to control of the mainland, culminating in French rule of the area by the 19th century, albeit amid much biragk resistance.

Senegal peacefully attained independence from France inand has since been among the politically stable countries in Africa.

Birago Diop – Wikipedia

Senegals economy is centered mostly on commodities and natural resources, major industries are fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, and ship construction and repair. As in most African nations, agriculture is a sector, with Senegal producing several important cash crops, including peanuts, sugarcane, cotton, green beans, tomatoes, melons. Owing to its stability, tourism and hospitality are also burgeoning sectors.

A multiethnic and secular nation, Senegal is predominantly Sunni Muslim with Sufi, French is the official language, although many native languages are spoken and recognized. Since April Senegals president has been Macky Sall, Senegal has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie since Senegal is named after the Senegal River, the etymology of which is contested, one popular theory is that it stems from the Wolof phrase sunu gaal, which means our canoe, resulting from a miscommunication between 15th-century Portuguese sailors and Wolof fishermen.

The our canoe theory has been embraced in modern Senegal for its charm. It is frequently used in appeals to national solidarity, frequently heard in the media, modern historians believe the name probably refers to the Sanhaja, Berbers who lived on the northern side of the river. A competing theory is that it derives from the town of Sanghana.

The capital of the federation was Dakar, the federation existed from until Until after the Second World War almost all the Africans living in the colonies of France were not citizens of France, rather, they were French Subjects, lacking rights before the law, property ownership rights, rights to travel, dissent, or vote.

The Four Communes of Senegal were entitled to elect a Deputy to represent them in the French Parliament in the years —, —, inthe first African, Blaise Diagne, was elected as the Deputy for Senegal in the French Parliament. InDiagne pushed through the National Assembly a law granting citizenship to all residents of the so-called Four Communes.

In return, he had promised to help millions of Africans to fight in World War I.

The first Biiographie General of Senegal was named inand inGabon would later become the seat of its own federation French Equatorial Africa, which was to border its western neighbor on the modern boundary between Niger and Chad. While the latter fell to Free France already after the Battle of Gabon in Novemberfollowing World War II, the French government began a process of extending limited political rights in its colonies. In the French Provisional Government allocated ten seats to French West Africa in the new Constituent Assembly called to write a new French Constitution, of these five would be elected by citizens and five by African subjects.

The elections brought to prominence a new generation of French-educated Africans and they were all re-elected to the 2nd Constituent Assembly on 2 June The French Empire was renamed the French Union on 27 Octoberin late under this new constitution each territory was for the first time able elect local representatives, albeit on a limited franchise, to newly established General Councils. These elected bodies had only limited powers, although they did approve local biofraphie.

The Loi Cadre of 23 June brought universal suffrage to elections held after that date in all French African colonies, the first elections under universal suffrage in French West Africa were the municipal elections of late On 31 Marchunder universal suffrage, territorial Assembly elections were held in each of the eight colonies, the leaders of the winning parties were appointed to the newly instituted positions of Vice-Presidents of the respective Governing Councils — French Colonial Governors remained as Presidents.

The Constitution of the French Fifth Republic of again changed the structure of the colonies from the French Biohraphie to the French Community, each territory was to become a Protectorate, with the consultative assembly named a National Assembly.

Sembène Ousmane (1923-2007), une biographie

In Senegal, the Wolof are the largest ethnic group, while elsewhere they are a minority and they refer to themselves as Wolof, and speak the Wolof language — a West Atlantic branch of the Niger-Congo family of languages.

Their early history is unclear and based on traditions that link the Wolof to the Almoravids. The Wolof belonged to the medieval era Wolof Empire of Senegambia region, details of the pre-Islamic religious traditions of Wolof are unknown, and their oral traditions state them to have been adherents of Islam since the founding king of Jolof. In and after the 18th century, the Wolofs were impacted by the violent jihads in West Africa, in the 19th century, as the colonial French forces launched a war against the Wolof kingdoms, the Wolof people resisted the French and converted to Islam.


Contemporary Wolofs are predominantly Sufi Muslims belonging to Mouride and Tijaniyyah Islamic brotherhoods, the Wolof people, like other West African ethnic groups, have historically maintained a rigid, endogamous social stratification that included nobility, clerics, castes and slaves.

The Wolof were close to the French colonial rulers, became integrated into the colonial administration and they are also referred to as Chelofes, Galofes, Lolof, Jolof, Olof, Volof, Wolluf and Yolof.

Biography of Birago DIOP

The term Wolof also refers to the Wolof language and to their states, cultures, older French publications frequently employ the spelling Ouolof, up to the 19th century, the spellings Volof and Olof are also encountered. In English, Wollof and Woloff are found, particularly in reference to the Gambian Wolof, the spelling Jolof is often used, but in particular reference to the Wolof empire and kingdom in central Senegal that existed from the 14th to the 19th centuries. Similarly, a West African rice dish is blographie in English as jollof rice, the origins of the Wolof people are obscure, states David Gamble — a professor of Anthropology specializing on Senegambia and Africa studies.

Their name as the Wolof first appears in the records of 15th century Portuguese travelers, blographie to Gamble, this migration likely occurred at the end of 11th century when the Birao Empire fell to the Muslim armies from Sudan.

Another oral tradition tells of a legend in Walo, which starts biogrzphie two villages near a lake in a dispute, a mysterious person arose from the lake to settle the dispute. The villagers detained him, he settled among them and became the one who settled disputes and he was called Ndyadyane Ndyaye, and his descendants were called Ndiayes or Njie, and these led to ruling families of Wolof, Mali and Dioo, according to this mythical legend.

Sembène Ousmane (), une biographie | Africultures

The documented history, from 15th-century onwards is a story of biigraphie between powerful families, wars, coups and conquests in Wolof society. Its final demise at the hands of French colonial forces in the ss also marks the beginning of the formation of Senegal as a unified state. By the end of the 15th century, the Wolof states of Jolof, Kayor, Baol, the position of king was held by the Burba Wolof and the rulers of biographje other component states owed loyalty and tribute payments to him.

Slavery has been a part of the Wolof people since their earliest known history, in the pre-colonial birato, slaves were either born or acquired through purchase or capture. Veterinary physician — In many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a veterinarian are restricted only to those professionals who are registered as a veterinarian. Most veterinary physicians work in clinical settings, treating animals directly, as with other healthcare professionals, veterinarians face ethical decisions about the care of their patients.

The word veterinary comes from the Latin bipgraphie meaning working animals, Veterinarian was first used in print by Thomas Browne in The first veterinary college was founded in Lyon, France in by Claude Bourgelat, according to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy. The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in in England to promote idop and industry, a Society meeting resolved to promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles.

The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by charter in Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with contributions from Sir John McFadyean. Veterinarians treat disease, disorder or injury in animals, which includes diagnosis, treatment, the scope of practice, specialty and experience of the individual veterinarian will dictate exactly what interventions they perform, but most will perform surgery.

Unlike in human medicine, veterinarians must rely primarily on clinical signs, additionally, there are scenarios where euthanasia is considered due to the constrains of the clients finances. As with human medicine, much work is concerned with prophylactic treatment.

Common interventions include vaccination against common illnesses, such as distemper or rabies. This may also involve owner education so as to future medical or behavioral issues. Additionally veterinarians have important roles in health and the prevention of zoonoses. The majority of veterinarians are employed in private practice treating animals, small animal veterinarians typically work in veterinary clinics, veterinary hospitals, or both.

Large animal veterinarians often spend time travelling to see their patients at the primary facilities which house them. Other employers include charities treating animals, colleges of medicine, research laboratories, animal food companies. In many countries, the government may also be an employer of veterinarians. State and local governments also employ veterinarians, Veterinarians and their practices may be specialized in certain areas of veterinary medicine.

In France, Hugo is known primarily for his collections, such as Les Contemplations. He produced more than 4, drawings and also campaigned for causes such as the abolition of capital punishment. Hugos childhood was a period of political turmoil.